Hebrew vs. Aramaic

I wrote this for my book, but at the last moment I decided to replace it with a different text more typical of Biblical Hebrew. This is pretty technical, so feel free to skip it till Middle East Construction Kit comes out and you can read the Hebrew mini-grammar there. Many thanks to Carlo Yehuda Meloni who provided the texts and transliterations.

Let’s take the opportunity to compare Hebrew and Aramaic. We’ll look at Daniel 7:2-4, which is written in Aramaic. The English translation is the JPS’s.

First, here’s the Hebrew. This is actually a +19C back-translation into Hebrew by Samuel Leib Gordon. As such it’s a far later Hebrew than BH, and highly influenced by Aramaic. The main difference is a very frequent use of the active participle rather than the PC or SC. (Prefixing vs suffixing conjugations.)

עוֹנֶה דָּנִיֵּאל וְאוֹמֵר: רוֹאֶה הָיִיתִי בַּחֲזוֹנִי עִם לַיְלָה, וְהִנֵּה אַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם מְגִיחוֹת לַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל.

ʿōneh Dāniyyēl wə-ʾōmer, rōʾeh hāyītī ba-ħăzōnī ʿim laylāh, wə-hinneh ʾarbaʿ rūħōṯ ha-ššāmayīm məgīħōṯ la-yyām ha-ggāḏōl.

answering-sm Daniel and-speaking-sm / seeing-sm be.SC-1s in-vision-1s with night / and-behold four.f wind-pl.cons the-heaven-du stirring-pl.f to-sea the-great-sm

Daniel related the following: In my vision at night, I saw the four winds of heaven stirring up the great sea.

וְאַרְבַּע חַיּוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת עוֹלוֹת מִן הַיָּם, שׁוֹנוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ.

Wə-ʾarbaʿ ħayyōṯ gəḏōlōṯ ʿōlōṯ min ha-yyām, šōnōṯ zō mizzō.

and-four.f beast-pl great-pl.f coming-pl.f from the-sea / differing-pl.f this.sf from-this.sf

Here zoṯ ‘this.sf’ is replaced by zō, as in Mišnaic Hebrew.

Four mighty beasts different from each other emerged from the sea.

הָרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְנָפַיִם שֶׁל נֶשֶׁר לָהּ, רוֹאֶה הָיִיתִי עַד אֲשֶׁר נִמְרְטוּ כְנָפֶיהָ וְנִשְּׂאָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְעַל רַגְלַיִם כְּאָדָם הוּקָמָה, וּלְבַב אָדָם נִתַּן לָהּ.

Hā-riʾšōnāh kə-ʾaryēh ū-ḵənāpayīm šel nešer lāh, rōʾeh hā-yīṯī ʿaḏ ʾăšer nimrəṭū kənāpēyṯāh wə-nissʾāh min hā-ʾāreṣ, wə-ʿal raglayīm kəʾāḏām hūqāmāh, ū-ləḇaḇ ʾāḏām nittaw lāh.

the-first-sf as-lion / and-wing-du which eagle to-3sf / seeing-sm be.SC-1s until sub scour.nip̄ʿal.SC-3pm wing-du.cons-3sf and-3sf-raise.nip̄ʿal.SC from the-earth / and-on foot.du as-man stand.hop̄ʿal.SC-3sf and-heart.cons man give.SC-3sm to-3sf

You’d expect the construct state for ‘wings of eagles’, but Aramaic preferred the construction X di Y, and Gordon translates this literally as X šel Y.

The first was like a lion but had eagles’ wings. As I looked on, its wings were plucked off, and it was lifted off the ground and set on its feet like a man and given the mind of a man.

Daniel was written as late as the 2C, so the transliteration I’ve been using, suitable for the Iron Age, is anachronistic. Carlo Yehuda Meloni provides the following phonemic transcription:

ʕonɛ daniyyel wəʔomer: roʔɛ hɔyiθi baħazoni ʕim laylɔ, wəhinne ʔarbaʕ ruħoθ haʃʃɔmayim məɣiħoθ layyɔm haggɔðol. wəʔarbaʕ ħayyoθ gəðoloθ ʕoloθ min hayyɔm, ʃonoθ zo mizzo. hɔriʃonɔ kəʔarye uxnɔfayim ʃɛl nɛʃɛr lɔh, roʔɛ hɔyiθi ʕað ʔaʃɛr nimrətˤu xənɔfɛhɔ wəniśśəʔɔ min hɔʔɔrɛsˤ, wəʕal raɣlayim kəʔɔðɔm huqɔmɔ, ulvav ʔɔðɔm nittan lɔh.

Here’s the Aramaic Biblical text.

עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר, חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם-לֵילְיָא; וַאֲרוּ, אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָּא, מְגִיחָן, לְיַמָּא רַבָּא.

ʕɔne ðɔniyyel wəʔɔmar, ħɔze haweθ bəħɛzwi ʕim leləyɔ; waʔaru, ʔarbaʕ ruħe ʃəmayyɔ, məɣiħɔn ləyammɔ rabbɔ.

speak.act.part-sm Daniel and-speak.act.part-sm / look.act.part-sm see.SC-1s in-vision-1s with night / and-behold / four.sf wind-pl.cons heaven stir.act.part-sf to-sea great-sm

Daniel related the following: In my vision at night, I saw the four winds of heaven stirring up the great sea.

וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן, סָלְקָן מִן-יַמָּא, שָׁנְיָן, דָּא מִן-דָּא.

wəʔarbaʕ ħewɔn ravrəvɔn sɔləqɔn min yammɔ, ʃɔnəyɔn dɔ min dɔ.

and-four beast-pl great-pl.f come.act.part-pl.f from sea / differ.act.part-pl.f this.sf from this.sf

Four mighty beasts different from each other emerged from the sea.

קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, וְגַפִּין דִּי-נְשַׁר לַהּ; חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי-מְּרִיטוּ גפיה (גַפַּהּ) וּנְטִילַת מִן-אַרְעָא, וְעַל-רַגְלַיִן כֶּאֱנָשׁ הֳקִימַת, וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ, יְהִיב לַהּ.

qaðmɔyəθɔ xəʔarye, wəɣappin di nəʃar lah; ħɔze haweθ ʕað di-mməritˤu ɣappah untˤilaθ min ʔarʕɔ, wəʕal raɣlayin kɛʔɛnɔʃ hoqimaθ, ulvav ʔɛnɔʃ yəhiv lah.

first-sf as-lion / and-wing-pl of eagle to-3sf watch.act.part-sm watch.SC-1s until till pluck.nifal.SC-3pm / wing-pl.cons-3sf and-3sf-raise.nifal.PC from earth / and-on feet.du as-man stand.hofal.SC-3sf and-heart.cons man give.SC-3sm to-3sf

The first was like a lion but had eagles’ wings. As I looked on, its wings were plucked off, and it was lifted off the ground and set on its feet like a man and given the mind of a man.

Sales Report 2021

I haven’t done one of these in awhile. The kobolds in the Accountancy Wing of the Zompist Fortressplex have produced a chart on book sales for the last ten years. (Kobolds are cheaper than goblins, and easily replaceable after infestations of first-level adventurers.)

Total sales are just over 41,000 units. Of that, 25,000 are paperbacks, the rest are e-books. The LCK has sold about 18,000, which is quite respectable for a book. That probably means that it’s inspired at least 30,000 conlangs, which is a little frightening. (Obviously, many readers never produce a conlang, but Conlangs Georg, an outlier, creates one every day.)

The to-date chart is skewed a bit toward older titles. Month by month, the Syntax book does as well as the other linguistics books.

If you’ve ever wondered why authors keep writing what they’ve always written, look at the smaller slices. The best-selling novel, Against Peace and Freedom, has just 384 sales. I feel like I just can’t write more fiction yet. The history/language books do better but not great, but I can’t write an endless series of linguistics books.

(Oh, if the order in the pie chart is baffling, it’s chronological.)

If you’ve bought any books, thank you! Buy some more, they’re priced to move!

MECK readers needed

It’s (finally) that time again: I need readers for the first draft of the Middle East Construction Kit.

The book is similar to my China and India books. It covers the history, culture, religion, and literature of ancient Mesopotamia, Canaan, and Egypt, up till the Macedonian conquest, and includes meaty grammatical sketches of Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hebrew.

If you’re interested and have time, send me e-mail. If you’ve done this before, welcome back! If not, tell me if you have any special expertise. This is not required, as I need general readers too. If I get a load of replies I may save some of you for the second draft.

If you’re curious, that’s king Horemheb above, circa 1300 BCE, greeting Hathor in the afterlife, and hoping no one notices he has two right hands.

Langmaker book is out!

Jeffrey’s book, Langmaker: Celebrating Conlangs, is out!

File photo of Jeffrey conlanging

Well, the print edition has been out for a couple weeks, but the Kindle edition is finally out too. The Kindle Create program was not cooperative. First, it refused to import the base document, so I had to import a plain text version and redo all the formatting. And then the program got slower and slower till it was almost unusable. It’s fine for touchups but not so good for actually formatting your book.

But never mind that, it’s done! Admire the editing, and Jeffrey’s work too! Did I mention how much groovy Fith is?  And the lovingly satirical Tev’Meckian?  And bask in over a thousand conlangs which will make 2005 live for you once again.

The Langmaker book

I’m about to order the proof copy of Langmaker: Celebrating Conlangs, by Jeffrey Henning. But I’m not Jeffrey Henning!  What’s going on?

Well, Jeffrey decided (and it’s about time) to put out his material from Langmaker as a book. He asked me to edit and design the book, and it’s almost done.

Back in the early 2000s, there were two websites that the aspiring conlanger certainly had bookmarked: mine and Langmaker.com.  Jeffrey was interested in all kinds of conlangs, and there were all sorts of ways to get involved: get your conlang listed, translate the Babel Text, submit a neologism, etc.  And then, around 2008, the database got corrupted, and no one knew how to fix it, and the site sadly perished.

The book contains most of the essays and reviews Jeffrey wrote for the site, plus a bunch of his conlangs.  (Except for the lexicons.  They’re one of his specialties, really, and worth a close look… but they’d make the book 2000 pages long.  I will host them a bit later.) (We tried to buy the Langmaker domain back for that, but it wasn’t available.)

We also included the “Conlangs at a Glance” section of the site, a list of historical and contemporary conlangs compiled by Jeffrey or submitted by readers. I spruced this section up to make it more informative.  I think it’s a useful snapshot of conlanging as of 2005 or so, and if that means it includes a lot of people’s first conlangs, that’s just how it was.

Edit: Oh! While I was adding the book page, I got rid of the Google ads on my home page. They are bringing in so pitifully little that they’re not worth the annoyance. I’m hoping to get up a Patreon instead.



Syntax Construction Kit: 1st draft

I think I’ve written a book. Now we must see whether this is so. As was foretold in the prophecies, this is where I ask for readers.


Contact me if you’re interested and have the time over the next few weeks— markrose at zompist dot com. I usually get more offers than I can handle, so get your offer in fast. 🙂

If you’ve only read the LCK, that’s fine; if you’re a Herr Professor Doktor of linguistics, that’s also fine.

The Fortressplex is moving

It’s beginning to look like we’re moving:


We now have a condo!  This makes me happy, because though we have a great landlord, having a place we own will be better in the long run. Our income is what the auditors call “no mucho”, but we will actually be paying substantially less in our new place.

There’s less room for bookshelves, so I’m getting rid of a bunch of books. Choosing books to toss turned out to be a less painful process than I imagined. The basic question is “Will I ever read this again?” and the answer is usually pretty clear. In some cases the answer might be ‘maybe once’, but it’s readily available at the library and I’d rather not lug a copy around forever.

Oh, if you’re in the Chicago area and want some books, contact me within the next week or so.  (No linguistics books, sorry, but a miscellanea of history, classics, comics, and science.)

The condo was offered at a much higher price, which steadily declined over something like 9 months. It ended up at a really good price for a 2-bedroom in its location.  My best guess is that the owner made a bad move by turning the large front room into two smaller rooms by adding a wall. I imagine a lot of people looked at it and said “This is weird, let’s move on to the next listing.” You could take out the wall pretty easily, but people would rather not have the hassle. (We’re keeping it, because it makes for a nice office.)

While I’m at it, I got the latest reports from the goblins chained up in the  Accountancy Dungeon.  Total books sold have just gone over 25,000.  Over 11,000 of that is the LCK. All the language books (and the PCK) sell pretty well.  About 60% of sales are paperbacks, the rest Kindle. The China book is doing adequately— way better than the novels.

What’s next from Zompist

You should, of course, be buying the India Construction Kit. But yes, here at the Zompist Fortressplex new plans are already afoot. Here’s a clue.

syntax books

Your first guess will undoubtedly be a Quechua grammar. And that’s still in the running!

But as the pile of syntax books next to my desk suggests, I’ve actually started on another language book, most probably called The Syntax Construction Kit.

Didn’t I cover syntax in the LCK?  Oh yes, more or less, but never to the satisfaction of my internal syntactician. I would really like to draw a bunch of syntactic trees, and explain why syntactic trees were so exciting in around 1980, and how to argue about syntax, and why Noam Chomsky is both brilliant and infuriating.

Syntax was my introduction to academic linguistics, and though it’s useful for conlanging, like knowing bones is useful for designing animals, what I want to get across is how much fun syntax was at that time. Generative syntax was a new field, so new things were being discovered— hell, your syntax class, or you yourself writing a paper, could discover a new fact about English syntax pretty much any time you wanted to. You could watch the big names in the field arguing with each other and not infrequently pausing to teach each other philosophy of science.

Now, only one of the books in the picture was published past 1990, and it’s possible that everything I learned is now completely outdated. I will take the opportunity to update my knowledge, but I’m guessing that I won’t have to change that much. The idea isn’t to teach a particular formalism so much as to teach the methods and findings of modern syntax.

You may be wondering, will there be another regional Construction Kit, after China and India? I certainly hope so! A Middle East Construction Kit is an attractive possibility. But the research load for these things is immense, and I need a little break.

Even less likely: you may be clamoring for more fiction, bless your heart. People who’ve bought my novels seem to like them, but unfortunately there’s just not enough of them. One encouraging sign, though: on my Kindle reports, I noticed that some lovely soul bought about fifty copies of Against Peace and Freedom in December, presumably to give to all their friends. That’s more than it usually sells all year. So I will probably dig out the sequel and keep working at it.


India Construction Kit out on Kindle!

The India Construction Kit is available on Kindle. It’s only $6.25. Here’s my page explaining the book.


The paperback edition is coming soon. I’ve just ordered the second proof copy, and expect to fix final typos and send it to bed in the middle of next week.

I can’t think of much else to write that I didn’t already put on the other page, except that it’s ideal for everyone on your list for holiday shopping.

Oh, if you do buy the Kindle version, you will probably want to look on the web resources page (see the intro) for bigger maps.  They will be up in a day or two.

Edit: if you were waiting on tenterhooks… get off those tenterhooks, you could hurt yourself. Paperback is here.