I just read the Baburnama, which is Babur’s autobiography. No, not the elephant, you big wag, the Moghul emperor.
Doing the Mughals
A little refresher, for those who are shaky on their Mughals. This is the big late-medieval Indian empire; Babur founded it in 1526; his last descendant was knocked off the throne in 1858 by the British. The height of the empire was under the tolerant, inquisitive Akbar, Babur’s grandson, and it’s generally considered to have gone to hell under and after the unpleasant and zealous Aurangzeb. The Taj Mahal is the tomb of a Mughal empress (Mumtaz, wife of Akbar’s grandson Shah Jehan).
The Brits arrived when the empire was just a shell, the emperor in control of little more than Delhi. The East India Company used a strange little dodge to conquer India: it supported a claimant to the throne of Bengal, who granted it the government of the province in the name of the Mughal emperor. It used the treasury and troops of Bengal to conquer the rest of India, under the legal fiction that it was operating under Mughal authority. I’m not sure if this really fooled anyone.
Oh, fun fact: Mughal is a form of Mongol, because of the Genghis connection. The Mughals didn’t actually call themselves that; they used Gurkani, after the title Gurkan ‘son-in-law’ Timur acquired by marrying into Genghis’s line.
Babur was a descendant of Timur, known to the west as Tamerlane, a particularly brutal conqueror of Central Asia and Persia. He lived in Chaghadai’s section of the Mongol Empire, which by his time spoke Turkish and accepted Islam. He could not claim descent from Genghis Khan himself, but he married into the family, so his sons could. He died in 1405 while planning the conquest of China.
During and after his reign the administrative and literary language of Central Asia was Persian. There was a rough division of nomadic Turks (the bulk of the army) and sedentary Persians (the administrators). Babur made the unusual choice of writing his autobiography in his native language, Chaghadai Turkish, though he was also fluent in Persian. The Mughals in India continued to use Persian till the end, though they did forget Turkish. (Fortunately, the Baburnama was translated into Persian for them.)
Babur was born in 1483, and Timur’s empire had collapsed into a scrim of usually warring emirates. His father died when he was 10, and he was plunged immediately into a lifestyle of war and migration that would last till the end of his life. His early conflicts were with the rising power of the Uzbeks, who were slowly taking out the remaining Timurids.
Babur’s early years remind me of the story of Liu Bei in Three Kingdoms. He has a way of getting a kingdom, making a move on another, and losing everything, but you just could not put that boy down; he counted his few remaining followers and was back on the board in a few months. He gained and lost Samarkand (Timur’s capital) three times.
Finally he’s forced out of Central Asia entirely, but he regroups in Kabul. He takes the city without a fight in 1504, and he’s a little vague on how this happened; Wikipedia fills in the key detail that he took over from a usurper who had displaced an infant ruler. He was still only 21.
He spends most of his life in Afghanistan, and it’s obviously his favorite place, the one he thinks of as his. (He is buried there.) For a time things looked up: he found new allies in another Turkish dynasty, the Safavids, who had just taken over Persia; they defeat the Uzbeks and he briefly holds Samarkand. The Uzbeks then regroup the next year and decisively defeat both the Safavids and Babur.
With progress in that direction halted, Babur simply turned the other direction. He had already raided Hindustan; now he turned to conquest. He had an excuse at hand– Muslims had already conquered northern India a couple centuries before, and there were quarrels to take advantage of. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526 and took over in Delhi and Agra; the next year he defeated a Rajput (Hindu) army.
By his own account his army was no more than 12,000 or so, and Lodi’s was over 100,000. But in general Indian armies (no matter who was leading them) were never a good match for nomad-based armies from the northwest; by this time Babur was also skillfully using cannons and matchlocks.
He spent some time consolidating his conquest, and died in 1530. He was succeeded by his son Humayun, who promptly lost everything. But he got it back, with Safavid help, some years later.
Should you run out and get it? Well, if you like history, sure. Not many emperors have written down what they thought they were doing. I’ll warn you, though: he tends to concentrate on what is least interesting to us: genealogies, long lists of who supported who, detailed accounts of long journeys, where the army camped each night, how they got across the rivers, when and where they stopped to drink or get stoned. A lot of what we’d consider the good stuff is asides in the story he wants to tell.
(I should also warn you that he piles on the names. Honestly I skimmed over most of them.)
For instance, he makes side comments about mistakes he made, errors in strategy, who was a good or poor warrior. Not surprisingly, he values loyal and brave supporters, but by his own account it was awfully difficult for a beg (lord) to resist the temptation to go off on their own, or to support a rival. In these circumstances, the only sure way to keep your forces loyal and happy was to keep them with you, and to keep coming up with loot. (The first time he conquered Samarkand, the city was so impoverished that he couldn’t reward his allies: big mistake.)
From digressions and side comments, we also learn what he was interested in besides war. He’s very fond of poetry; when he gives a portrait of someone, he sometimes rather charmingly quotes a line of their poetry. He tells you where the best fruit and wine comes from all over Central Asia. He really likes gardens, and he’s always constructing or reconstructing one, or introducing the custom of building them into India. (The Persians always loved a walled garden– in fact, pairidaēza ‘enclosed park’ in Avestan is where we got the word ‘paradise’.) In the Afghan years he is constantly having drinking parties, or for a change he and his pals eat ma’jun, a mild chewable narcotic. (Later on he abstains from alcohol… but sees no need to give up ma’jun.)
There’s not much about sex, though the most intimate detail is rather surprising: as a young man, he had a deep crush on a younger boy. He describes himself as so shy that he didn’t really do anything about it, but it’s interesting that he has no compunctions about putting this in the royal memoirs. (Which doesn’t prevent him from condemning “pederasty” in others. Still, I gather that it’s like drinking: he only really disapproves of it when it goes beyond some ill-defined level from excusability into excess.) He does enter into a love match with one of his wives, but he never says much about this.
He loves Kabul, but he has a poor opinion of India:
Hindustan is a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful social intercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility, or manliness. The arts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes, melons, or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets. There are no baths and no madrasas. There are no candles, torches, or candlesticks.
What he does like about India is pretty simple and direct: it’s fabulously rich.
He mentions the language barrier, but doesn’t seem to realize how deeply it affects his judgments. He has a long section in praise of the cultural splendor of Herat (in Afghanistan), showing that he has a great appreciation for poetry, the Persian epics, calligraphy, painting, Sufiism, and Islamic law. His description of India talks only about the physical aspects of the place– especially its plants and animals. He doesn’t mention a thing about Indian literature, culture, or religion.
Babur is a pious Muslim– he always approves of someone saying their daily prayers, he gives alms, he undertakes fasts (sometimes while he was still drinking)– but doesn’t seem zealous, until he fights with the Rajputs. Then he is suddenly conscious of fighting the Infidels. As he’s spent his entire life fighting other Muslims, it is hard to take this temporary zeal very seriously. He does destroy the idols in a particular location, but mostly because he wanted to make it into a garden.
His memoirs are often described as frank or honest; of course we don’t really know if they are or not. I understand that other sources, such as they are, don’t contradict him. But I don’t think his self-presentation is entirely artless. E.g., he describes taking action even when he’s ten or twelve, and even when he refers to his elders taking him in hand (e.g. to protect him from his rivals). His image of himself is always of a generous and loyal king, though occasionally mistaken or unlucky in strategy. And probably he was, most of the time. He has a detailed description of a campaign in India, where he is constantly reassigning fiefs, sending letters back to Kabul, playing a game of negotiation-or-war with the frenemy of the moment, the Bengalis. By this time, in his forties, he had evident skill not only in war, but in the all-important people skills of keeping begs happy and rivals intimidated. His one great mistake was to die too early, leaving Humayun in charge at too early an age.
I should add, there’s a famous story about his death, which for obvious reasons isn’t in the autobiography: His son Humayun was sick, and the doctors despaired for his life. Babur prayed that the illness would take him instead. And indeed, his son recovered and Babur died.
If you do read it, I recommend Wheeler Thackston’s translation, which is not only lively and readable, but complemented by helpful maps and genealogical tables.